Artificial Intelligence:  A Replacement for Humans?

 

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Part Two. A Brief History into Artificial Intelligence

by Jim McDonald.

Part Two. A Brief History into Artificial Intelligence

1950s. Machine intelligence is taken up by Carnegie Mellon, Stanford and MIT

1960s and 1970s. Edward Feigenbaum (Stanford) developed the first form of Artificial Intelligence. 

1980s. Herbert Simon and Allen Newell (Rand, Carnegie Mellon) formulize cognitive science. Simon coins “artificial intelligence.”   Stanford and the University of Edinburgh apply logic, mathematics and probability to machine reasoning, planning, learning, perception, and robotics.  

2015. Google makes great strides to improve Speech Recognition and Natural Language (NL). 

2016. A smart machine determines the right dose of immunosuppressant drugs for organ transplants.    

2018. Paul R Daugherty and H. James Wilson, Accenture technologists, researchers and authors in artificial intelligence, outlined their view of Artificial Intelligence in their book, “Human +Machine. “The simple truth is that machines are not taking over the world, nor are they obviating the need for humans in the workplace. In this era of business process transformation, AI systems are not wholesale replacing us; rather, they are amplifying our skills and collaborating with us to achieve productivity gains that have previously not been possible” (pg. 7). 

 

 Most important advances in artificial Intelligence (from my point of view!) 

1.     Smart systems (Feigenbaum)

2.     Natural language (Google)  

3.      Conversational Bots (SRI/smart phones.  Alexia/Amazon) 

4.      Semantic search (Tim Berners-Lee).    

 

The term “semantic search” was coined by Tim Berners-Lee who postulated that the semantic Web is a web of data, in some ways like a global database. Semantic search applications can be found in library and information science, industry, biology and human sciences research, which have already proven the validity of the original concept. Semantic search uses ontological structures (related) where the search engine looks for literal matches with query patterns, words or variants of them, without understanding the overall meaning of the query. 

 

Semantic search is based on  the searcher's intent and the contextual meaning of words, whether on the Web or within a closed system.  In a nut shell, semantic search considers search  location, intent, variation f words, synonyms, deductive or inductive inquiry, generalized and specialized queries, concept matching

 

During my ten years with Stanford Research Institute (1971 to 1981), I had the opportunity to interact with and recruit for the Augmented Intelligence Lab. During those ten years with SRI, the AI Lab produced a number of formative studies in robotics, natural language, and artificial intelligence. I have listed notable AI research project produced during the decade.

 

    

 

                                                                                           Shaky, the robot, a breakthrough in the world of robotics.

 

 

 

 

 

1971. programming concepts

1972 robot research, intuitive reasoning

 

1973 a hierarchy of abstractions, multisensory images, reasoning,

1974 scene analysis, speech understanding, performance grammars,

1975 knowledge and reasoning synthesis, non-linear plans, vison systems, semantic networks, speech understanding, plans and behavior,

1976 reasoning about scenes, rule-based inference, natural language (NL) interface

1977 semantic networks, building NL interfaces, speech understanding,

1978 scene characteristics from images, encoding knowledge, industrial vision,

1979 NL dialogues, utterances and objectives, reasoning knowledge and action,

1980 grammar for dialogues, automated inspection, partial, noisy information

1981 3-dimensial location, interactive planning, deductive synthesis, NL processing

Current Research. Task Assistant. Is a flexible, web-based workflow application that enables an organization to move operating procedures from manuals and human insights, into interactive, collaborative group solutions, allowing multiple users to simultaneous edit, build, or execute workflows.  

(Q. I wonder if Muller’s Special Counsel report used anything like Task Master?

The da Vinci Surgical System is a robotic surgical system developed by Stanford Research Institute and manufactured by the American company Intuitive Surgical. Approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2000, it is designed to facilitate complex surgery using a minimally invasive approach, and is controlled by a surgeon from a console.

Jim McDonald. Senior Human Resource manager and consultant, author, corporate
and individual transition specialist. Master of Science in Industrial Psychology.
 

Developed general model of occupational and career progression for first and
second editions of, “Behavioral Strengths and Employment Strategies.” Two
unpublished books, “Jobs and careers in translton,” for the defense industry engineer.
“A College Student’s Guide to the World of Work,” for the recent college graduate.
Recent presentations on the impact of artificial intelligence on occupational
development and career progress, in today’s world of work. Taught classes on HR
information system for San Francisco State College, and Golden Gate University.
NCHRA Emeritus.

 

Jim is a frequent panelist and presenter to Phase2Careers audiences.

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The da Vinci Surgical System is a robotic surgical system developed by Stanford Research Institute and manufactured by the American company Intuitive Surgical. Approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2000, it is designed to facilitate complex surgery using a minimally invasive approach, and is controlled by a surgeon from a console.

Phase2Careers is a private, nonprofit 501(c)3 agency that does not receive government funding.

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